Glossary of terms (terminology and key principles).
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Positive predictive value
The proportion of individuals with a positive
test result who truly have the target condition.
In individuals with a confirmed diagnosis, the
presence of a predictive biomarker is used to identify individuals who are more
likely to experience a favorable or unfavorable effect from a specific
intervention or exposure than individuals where the biomarker is absent. Predictive biomarkers may be used to refine
criteria for disease classification.
In individuals with a confirmed diagnosis, the presence or level of a prognostic biomarker is used to identify the likelihood of a clinical event, disease recurrence or progression, independent of the effects of a specific intervention.Prognostic biomarkers may be used to refine criteria for disease diagnosis or staging. A biomarker may be both prognostic and predictive.